In geomorphological terms, the Serra de São Mamede rises on a quartz ridge, which emerges on the Portalegre platform; This platform was formed from the erosion that occurs in the São Mamede mountain range.
The megaliths suggest that the mountain was inhabited in prehistoric times and there are rock carvings in the Knights and Loutions mountains.
Its rich fauna and flora are among the elements that enhanced the creation of the park of the same name. The São Mamede mountain range was contemplated with the last major snowfall on February 27, 2013. However, on April 5, 2019, an episode of snowfall occurred. Usually at least once a year it usually snows in this mountain range, but there may be years where there is no snow.